Anambra State: “Home For All”/ Light of the nation”

 

ANAMBRA STATE

Capital: Awka 

Slogan: “Home For All”/ Light of the nation”

Land Area: Total 4,844 km2 (1,870 sq mi)

Population: (2006 census) Total 4,055,048

Anambra state is the 4th state in alphabetical order of the 37 states that make up the country Nigeria however it is the 35th state when it comes to land area ranking.  it is located  in the southeastern part of the country. Its name is an anglicized version of the original ‘Oma Mbala‘, the native name of the Anambra River. The capital and seat of government is Awka. Onitsha, Nnewi, and Ekwulobia are the biggest commercial and industrial cities respectively. The state’s theme is “Light Of The Nation”, the current governor is Willie Obiano of the APGA party.

This is the first article of a 37 part series showing all the raw materials in the country Nigeria, with the aim of opening the eyes and mind of our readers to the infinite possibilities in starting Exporting , Farming and Exploration business depending on the states they find themselves.

 

MINERAL RAW MATERIALS

Clay, Iron Stone, Natural Gas, Petroleum,

Sand Stone, Kaolin,

Pyrite, Lignite


AGRO RAW MATERIALS

Oil Palm, Maize, Rice, Pigeon Pea (Siofiao), Yam, Beans (Odudu),

Cassava, Melon, Oil Palm, Poultry, Livestock, Sweet Potato,

Kolanut, Castor Oil Seed, Plantain, Banana, Mango,Citrus,

Piggery, Potato, Fruits, Cocoyam,Rabbitery, Fishery.

 

DISTRIBUTION OVER LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS

S/N LGA Raw Material
    Mineral Raw Material Agro Raw Material
1.        AGUATA ·      Clay

·      Iron Stone

·      Kaolin

·      Sand Stone

·      Cassava

·      Kola

·      Maize

·      Oil Palm

·      Piggery

·      Poultry

·      Rice

·      Yam

 

2.        ANAMBRA  ·      Clay

·      Iron Stone

·      Kaolin

·      Natural Gas

·      Petroleum

·      Sand Stone

·      Cassava

·      Fish

·      Fruits

·      Kolanuts

·      Maize

·      Melon

·      Pea (Fio–Fio)

·      Piggery

·      Potato

·      Poultry

·      Rice

·      Yam

 

3.        ANIOCHA  ·      Sand Stone ·      Banana

·      Cassava

·      Castor Oil

·      Cocoyam

·      Maize

·      Pigeon Pea     (Fio–Fio)

·      Piggery

·      Plantain

·      Poultry

·      Rice

·      Yam

 

4.        AWKA NORTH    ·      Beans

·      Cassava

·      Castor Oil

·      Cocoyam

·      Fruits

·      Piggery

·      Poultry

·      Rice

·      Yam

 

5.        AWKA SOUTH    ·      Banana

·      Cassava

·      Citrus

·      Cocoyam

·      Maize

·      Melon

·      Other Fruits

·      Pea

·      Plantain

·      Rabbitery

·      Rice

·      Yam

 

6.        AYAMELUM ·      Clay

·      Kaolin

·      Cassava

·      Cocoyam

·      Fruits

·      Maize

·      Melon

·      Rice

·      Yam

 

7.        DUNUKOFIA    ·      Cassava

·      Cocoyam

·      Fruits

·      Maize

·      Melon

·      Pea

·      Yam

 

8.        EKWUSIGWO  ·      Clay

·      Kaolin

 

·      Cassava

·      Castor Oil

·      Cocoyam

 

9.        IDEMILI SOUTH  . ·      Banana

·      Cassava

·      Castor Oil Seeds

·      Cocoyam

·      Fruits

·      Maize

·      Melon

·      Oil Palm

·      Pea

·      Pigeon

·      Plantain

·      Poultry

10.    IDEMILI WEST  ·      Lignite
·      Sand Stone
·      Banana

·      Cassava

·      Castor Oil Seeds

·      Cocoyam

·      Maize

·      Melon

·      Oil Palm

·      Plantain

·      Poultry

11.    IHIALA  ·      Clay

·      Kaolin

 

·      Banana

·      Cassava

·      Fruits

·      Maize

·      Melon

·      Oil Palm

·      Pigeon Castor Oil Seeds

·      Plantain

·      Yam

 

12.    MBAMILI  ·      Natural Gas

·      Petroleum

·      Cassava

·      Castor Oil Seeds

·      Fruits

·      Maize

·      Melon

·      Poultry

·      Rice

·      Yam

 

13.    NJIKOKA ·      Clay

·      Kaolin

 

·      Banana

·      Cassava

·      Cocoyam

·      Fruits

·      Maize

·      Melon

·      Oil Palm

·      Plantain

·      Yam

 

14.    NNEWI NORTH  ·      Lignite ·      Cassava

·      Cocoyam

·      Fruits

·      Maize

·      Melon

·      Oil Palm

·      Poultry

·      Yam

 

15.    NNEWI SOUTH  ·      Clay

·      Kaolin

·      Cassava

·      Fruits

·      Maize

·      Oil Palm

·      Yam

 

16.    OGBARU  ·      Natural Gas

·      Petroleum

·      Cassava

·      Castor Oil Seeds

·      Fish

·      Kolanut

·      Poultry

·      Rice

·      Yam

 

17.    ONITSHA NORTH  ·      Lignite

·      Pyrite

·      Sand Stone

·      Cassava

·      Fruits

·      Yam

18.    ONITSHA SOUTH ·      Lignite

·      Pyrite

·      Sand Stone

·      Cassava

·      Fruits

·      Yam

 

19.    ORUMBA NORTH  ·      Clay

·      Iron Stone

·      Lateritic Clay

 

·      Banana

·      Cassava

·      Fishery

·      Fruits

·      Melon

·      Oil Palm

·      Plantain

·      Poultry

·      Rice

 

20.    ORUMBA SOUTH  ·      Clay

·      Clay

·      Iron Stone

 

·      Cassava

·      Castor Oil Seeds

·      Cocoyam

·      Fruits

·      Maize

·      Oil Palm

·      Poultry

·      Rice

·      Yam

 

21.    OYI  ·      Pyrite

·      Sand Stone

 

·      Cassava

·      Fish

·      Maize

·      Potatoes

·      Rice

·      Yam

 

 

References

  • wikipedia.org
  • anambrastate.gov.ng
  • Raw material Research and Development Council

 

Disclaimer

All data and information provided in this article is for informational purposes only. Altimfreeman Inv. makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, correctness, suitability, or validity of any information in this Site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis

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Disclaimer:

All data and information provided in this article is for informational purposes only. Altimfreeman Inv. makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, correctness, suitability, or validity of any information in this Site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis.

All About the GROUNDNUT

Introduction

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is known by many names, including peanut, earthnut, monkey nut and poor man’s nut. it is a major crop grown in the arid and semi-arid zone of Nigeria. The oldest groundnut (or peanut) was found in Peru and dated to about 5600 BC.

It was introduced to China only in the 17th century, but today China is its largest producer, followed by India, USA, Nigeria and Indonesia.

Nigeria produces 30% of Africa’s total, followed by Senegal and Sudan with each about 8%, and Ghana and Chad with about 5% each. They are grown nearly exclusively for domestic use, either for consumption or as cash crop for small farmers. Groundnuts are used as foodstuffs in many different forms. It is either grown for its nut, oil or its vegetative residue (haulms).

Recently, the use of groundnut meal is becoming more recognized not only as a dietary supplement for children on protein poor cereals-based diets but also as effective treatment for children with protein related malnutrition.

It is the 13th most important food crop of the world and the 4th most important source of edible oil. Its seeds contain high quality edible oil (50%), easily digestible protein (25%) and carbohydrates (20%) (FAO, 1994).

The crop is mainly grown in the northern part of Nigeria; over 85% of the groundnuts produced in the country were accounted for by Kano, Kaduna, Taraba, Bauchi, Bornu, and Adamawa states (Abal and Harkness, 1978)

Health benefits and nutrition facts of peanut

peanut Nutrition Facts Label

Nutrition Facts Label- healthyhabitshub

Groundnut is rich in oil and protein, and has a high energy value. It can be eaten raw, roasted or cooked and the flour is an ingredient in many foods. Groundnut is important in vegetarian diets because of the protein it contains. It provides 13 different vitamins, especially A, the B group, C and E, along with 26 essential trace minerals, including calcium, iron, zinc and boron, and dietary fiber. Relief agencies supply groundnut pastes to alleviate malnourishment in droughts and famines, particularly in children

Other benefits of Groundnut

  • Reducing of heart disease and diabetes risk
    Studies have shown that consuming an ounce of peanuts a day can decrease risk of heart disease by half and diabetes risk by a quarter.
  • Weight loss
    A weight loss study conducted at Penn State University concluded that the group eating a moderate-fat diet that included peanut oil, peanut butter and peanuts kept their triglycerides low during the weight maintenance period. Despite similar weight loss, in the group that was kept on a low-fat diet, triglycerides rebounded and ‘good’ HDL cholesterol decreased during the weight maintenance period.
  • Vitamin B complex
    One cup of raw peanuts makes up for 110% of recommended daily intake of niacin (vitamin B3), 88% of folate, 81% of vitamin E, 78% of thiamine (vitamin B1), 30% of vitamin B6, and 15% of riboflavin (vitamin B2). Research show that these vitamins help in protecting against Alzheimer’s disease, cognitive decline and heart disease. They also play an essential role in many other processes in our body.

Health concerns

  • Peanut allergy is a type of hypersensitive response in some people. The symptoms may have severe manifestation and can be life threatening. Avoid peanuts if you are allergic to any other nuts.
  • Don’t give peanuts to children under one year old.
  • Peanuts are also susceptible to mold that can lead to high concentration of aflatoxin, which is a known carcinogenic. Roasting may reduce level of aflatoxin to a certain point.

Uses

Groundnuts  has a wide variety of uses such as:

  • Groundnut oil
  • Peanut butter
  • Used to Coat local beef kebab before roasting (suya)
  • Used for making of local sweets (kulikuli)
  • Biodiesel fuel
  • Peanut laxatives
  • Peanut dye
  • Peanut shampoo
  • Peanut insecticide
  • Peanut explosives
  • Peanut glue

Among other things…

Cultivation

Groundnut Plantation

Groundnut Plantation

Groundnut is grown in a well-drained sandy loam, or sandy clay loam soil. Deep well drained soil with high fertility. An optimum soil temperature for good germination is 30oC. it is usually grown in rotation with cereals as it help in efficient nutrient utilization and reduces soil borne diseases.

Land preparation should ensure that all crop residues and weeds are completely buried; ploughing and harrowing are also carried out to make a seed bed of fine tilth for proper germination and growth of crops. It could be sown on ridge or on flat. The recommended spacing for groundnut is 75 cm between the rows and 25 cm between the plants within the rows. Fertilizer can be applied at the rate of 54 kg/ha P2 O5 and 25 kg/ha K2O for good crop production; and can be applied before or immediately after planting.

Planting should be done as soon as possible after the onset of the rains. Early planting is recommended to avoid rosette attack.

Pests

Ground nut Aphid: Aphis craccivora  Koch

Damage

Ground nut aphid injects a powerful toxin into the plant while feeding and, when populations are large, this can stunt or kill plants. While feeding, this aphid produces a considerable amount of honeydew upon which sooty mold grows. The black sooty mold reduces photosynthesis and may make leaves unpalatable to livestock. Damage symptoms include yellowing, wilting, and dieback. In general, legumes can be seriously damaged, either by direct insect feeding or by the transmission of virus diseases (Rossette & Peanut strip virus.)

Control   

  • Inella septumpunctata,Menochilus sexmaculatus & Chrysoperla carnea keeps the pest under check. ( if 1  predator per plant no need of insecticide application.) Grow cowepea +Ground nut.
  • Phosphamidon 0.03 %
  • M-O-D 0.025 %
  • Dimethoate 0.03 %

 

Jassids: Empoasca kerri Bachluchaspp

Jassids: Empoasca kerri Bachluchaspp

Jassids: Empoasca kerri Bachluchaspp

Damage

Both adults and nymphs suck sap from young leaves, mostly from the lower surface. The first symptom of attack is a whitening of the veins. Yellow patches then appear, especiallythe tips of leaflets. Under severe infestation, the leaf tips become necrotic in a typical ‘v’ shape, giving the crop a scorched appearance known as ‘hopper burn’ The eggs are inserted in to the leaf tissue close to the midrib or into the petiole. The egg hatch in a week and nymphs in to adult in 10 days. The infestation is high during August and September and February and March.

Control

In the initial crop growth i.e. up to 30 days after emergence, if more than 10% of all leaves have the characteristic ‘hopper burn’, apply Dimethoate at 200-250 ml a.i./ha.

Cultural Control

  • Tmely sowing of the crop and field sanitation.
  • Grow tolerant varieties like Girnar 1. Crop rotation with non host crop.
  • Intercropping with pearl millet, Avoid groundnut-castor inter crop, it increases the infestation.
  • Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid season drought to prevent pre-harvest.

 

Mechanical Control

Collect and destroy the affected parts of the plant

Biological Control

Conserve bio agents like praying mantis, long horned grass hoppers, dragon flies spiders, green muscardine fungus.

Chemical Control

  • Apply safe chemical insecticides at recommended doses only if the insect population crosses the ETL
  • Spray dimethoate 30EC @ 650ml/ha or Monochrotophos 36SL @ 600ml/ha in 600 liter water.

Thrips: (Scirtothrips dorsalis, Thrips palmi)

 Thrips: (Scirtothrips dorsalis, Thrips palmi)

Thrips: (Scirtothrips dorsalis, Thrips palmi)

Damage

gnut5

Nymphs and adults lacerate the surface of the leaflets and suck the oozing sap resulting in white patches on lower surface of the leaves and distortion of young leaflets. Severe infestations cause stunted plants. Thrips palmi transmits peanut bud necrosis.

Cultural Control

  • Grow tolerant varieties like ALR 3, Robut 33-1, Kadiri 3 and ICGS 86031
  • Several groundnut accessions like 21018 have been identified as resistant to thrips.

Mechanical Control

Uproot and destroy severely infected plants.

Biological Control

Conserve bio agents like flower bugs (anthocorids), lady bird beetles (coccinellids), praying mantis, green lace wing (chrysopids), long horned grass hoppers, dragon flies and spiders.

Chemical Control

  • Spray Monochrotophos 36SL 600 ml/ha or Dimethoate 30 EC 650ml/ha or Methyldemeton 25 EC 600 ml in 600 lit of water.
  • Spray per acre monocrotophos 320ml mixed with neem oil 1lit and 1kg soap powder mixed in 200lit of water twice at 10days interval.

 

Leaf miner Aproaerema modicella

Leaf miner Aproaerema modicella

Leaf miner Aproaerema modicella

Nature of damage

gnut7.jpg
Small blister like mines are seen on the upper leaf surface near mid rib. As the feeding advances, the mines increase in size and the entire leaflet becomes brown, rolls, shrivels and dries up. In severe cases the affected crop presents a burnt up appearance. Later stages larvae web the leaflets together and feed on them, remaining within the folds.

Physical Control

The adult moths are attracted to light from 6.30 to 10.30 P.M. Petromax lamp placed at ground level attracts moths.

Cultural Control

  • Crop rotation with non-leguminous crops would considerably reduce the leafminer population.
  • Rotation of groundnut with soyabean and other leguminous crops should be avoided.
  • The most promising method of control would be utilization of resistant/tolerant varieties.

Chemical Control

  • Monocrotophos 0.04 %, DDVP 0.05 %, Fenitrothion 0.05 %, Endosulfan 0.07 %, Carbaryl 0.2 %, Quinalphos 0.05 %.
  • Larva is parasitized by Bracon gelechidae  Ashm. &  Elasmus brevicornis Gah.

 

Gram pod borer: Helicoverpa armigera

 

Damage

Larvae feed on the foliage, prefers flowers and buds. When tender leaf buds are eaten symmetrical holes or cuttings can be seen upon unfolding of leaflets.

Cultural Control

  • Deep summer ploughing
  • Intercrop one row of red gram for every 5 or 6 rows

Mechanical Control

Install pheromone trap @ 5/ha

Biological Control

  • Use Trichogramma chilonis @ 1 lakh/ha or Chrysoperla carnea @ 50000/ha at 40 and 50 days after sowing of groundnut can effectively check the pest.
  • Apply H-NPV @ 250 LE/ha or B.t (Bacillus thuringiensis) 1 kg/ha or 5% NSKE Conserve the natural bio control population of spiders, long horned grasshoppers, praying mantis, robar fly, ants, green lace wing, damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket, earwig, braconids, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscular fungus.
  • Crop rotation with sorghum, maize, pearl millet and sugarcane minimizes the infestation.
  • Chemical control as per polyphagous pests

 

Tobacco caterpillar: Spodoptera litura
Tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura

Damage

Freshly hatched larvae feed gregariously, scraping the chlorophyll, soon disperse. Later stages feed voraciously on the foliage at night, hiding usually in the soil around the base of the plants during the day. Sometimes the feeding is so heavy that only petioles and branches are left behind. In light soil, caterpillar bores into the pods.

Control

  • Set up pheromone traps at 2 traps/ha to monitor the adult (moth) populations.
  • Grow castor or sunflower along the border and irrigation channels as an indicator or trap crop.
  • Collect the gregarious early stages caterpillars in clusters (which manifest the lace-like leaves by their feeding) on castor or sunflower and destroy them.
  • Avoid migration of caterpillars by digging a trench 30 cm deep and 25 cm wide with perpendicular sides around the infested fields.
  • Apply nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) at 250 LE (larval equivalents)/ha with sugar 2.5 kg/ha in the evening hours. Sugar acts as a sticker and as a stimulant.
  • Prepare bait with the following materials to cover one hectare.

– Rice bran 12.5 kg, molasses 2.5 kg and Carbaryl 50 WP 1.25 kg. Mix the ingredients to a homogeneous mixture, sprinkle water gradually and bring the bait to a dough consistency. Distribute the above bait on the soil, around the field and inside in the evening hours immediately after preparation.

  • In irrigated and high-input-use areas.  Apply any one of the following insecticides to control early stages of caterpillar:
    –   Carbaryl 10 D-25 kg/ha;
    –   Carbaryl 50 WP 2.0 kg/ha;
    –   Quinalphos 20 EC-750 ml/ha;
    –   Endosulfan 35 EC- 1.0 liter/ha;
    –   Dichlorvos 76 WSC – 750 ml/ha;
    –   Indoxacarb 14.5 SC- 250 ml/ha;
    –   Spinosad 45 SC – 125 ml/ha.

 

Ground nut White grub: Holotrichia consanguinea

It is a polyphagus pest. Adults are 18-20 mm long and 7-9 mm wide. The eggs are white, almost round. The young grubs are translucent, white and 5 mm long. Beetles emerge out of the soil within 3-4 days after the onset of rain.  Install light traps with the onset of rains and count the number of beetles per day. Dig 100 X 100 X 20 cm pit @ 10 pits per ha, collect and count the number of beetles per pt.

Damage

Both adults and larvae are damaging stage.The larvae feeds roots and damage pods. Grubs feed on fine rootlets, resulting in pale, wilted plants dying in patches.

Mechanical Control

Collection and destruction of white grub adults from host trees around the field. In areas where white grub is persistent problem, deep ploughing after harvesting the crop can reduce the population as birds can pickup the grubs, and destruction of pupae.

Biological Control

Conserve braconids, dragon flies, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscardine fungus.

Chemical Control

  • Apply safe chemical insecticides at recommended doses only if the insect population crosses the ETL.
  • Control white grub adults by spraying their feeding trees like neem etc. with Carbaryl 50 WP at 2 g per liter of water. OR Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2 ml/lit of water soon after first monsoon showers for 3-4 days in the late evening hours kills the adult beetles and reduces root grub infestation.
  • This spraying need to be repeated 3 to 4 times until mid-July, ideally using community approach.
  • Application of Carbofuran at 1 kg a.i./ha in the seed furrows can be effective prophylactic measure.
  • Seed treatment with chlorpyriphos 20 EC ( 6.5 to 12.5 ml/kg seed) is found effective.
  • In case of severe infestation apply phorate 10 G @ 10 kg/ha.

 

Termite

Termite

Termite

Damage

Termites are white translucent ant like insects. They enter the root system and burrow inside the root and stem; this usually kills the plant. They bore holes in the pods and damage the seed. They remove the soft corky tissue from between the veins of the pods (scarified). They do not usually damage the seed. But scarified pods are more susceptible to infestation by Aspergillus fungus, which produces health hazard aflatoxins.

Control

  • Destroy termite nests by clean cultivation.
  • Seed treatment with Chlorpyriphos.
  • Drenching of termite nests with Chlorpyriphos solution.
  • Application of Carbofuran or Chlorpyriphos to the soil using 1 kg a.i. /ha at planting time can reduce termite incidence.

 

Ground Nut Bruchid

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Damage

The adult is a brown beetle. Small translucent milky-white eggs can be seen attached to the pod wall. The larva burrows through the pod wall, and starts eating the seed. Fully grown larvae often leave the storage sack and pupate in large numbers at the bottom of the pile of sacks.

The first sign of attack is the appearance of ‘windows’ cut into the pod wall by the larva. The larva burrows through the pod wall, and eats the seeds. Thus, groundnut seeds are too badly damaged for human consumption or oil expulsion.

Control

  • Drying the pods to less than 10% moisture before storing.
  • No live insect pests are present in the produce or in the storage areas.
  • Spraying the bags with pods with DDVP (Nuvan) at 2 ml/ liter of water or dusting with 5% Malathion.
  • Fumigation of pods with Aluminum phosphide (Celphos) at 3 g tablets per bag of groundnut (40 kg) and covering the sacks with polythene sheet for 5 days can effectively control bruchids without affecting the seed viability.
  • Fumigation should be done only in well aerated places outside the residential areas or in seed godowns only.

 

Pod Sucking Bug

Pod Sucking Bug

Pod Sucking Bug

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Damage 

This bug feeds on pods left in the field to dry, or on stored pods. In storage this bug feed on seeds, perforating the pod with their rostrum. This causes the seeds to shrivel and increases the free fatty acid content of the oil, producing a rancid flavor. Thus, the quality of groundnuts, and also the keeping quality of groundnuts are affected.

Control

  • Maintenance of optimum moisture content (not >5%) is always critical in preventing the development of storage pests.
  • For protection against these pests groundnuts should be stored unshelled.
  • If groundnuts are stored as seed, care should be taken to avoid breakage. Broken seeds should not be stored for long periods.
  • Dusting with an inert substance such as clay dust can help to minimize storage insect problems. Fumigation of pods with Aluminum phosphide (Celphos) at 3 g tablets per bag of groundnut (40 kg) and covering the sacks with polythene sheet for 5 days can effectively control bruchids without affecting the seed viability.
  • Fumigation should be done only in well aerated places outside the residential areas or in seed godowns only, under the supervision of plant protection specialist.

Harvest

peantus-growing

Ground nut Harvesting

Harvesting usually consists of a series of operations comprising digging, lifting, windrowing, stocking and threshing. Some of these tasks can be combined or eliminated depending on the system applied. Among the field operations concerned with groundnut cultivation, harvesting is the most laborious and costly endeavor. Harvesting should be done when the crop reached physiological maturity i.e., when a few leaves turned brown and the inner ribs of the groundnut were a pronounced brown in color. All the pods are recovered when pulled out of the soil.

Harvesting may sometimes become a problem especially when the crop has passed the stage of full maturity and the soil has hardened. An appreciable number of pods could be lost if not meticulously carried out; which make the harvest labor intensive.

Constraints

Groundnut is prone to the fungus Aspergillus flavus that produces aflatoxin, a group of toxins that occurs naturally and can be harmful to humans and animals in large amounts. High levels of aflatoxin in groundnut can hamper exports of groundnut from developing countries.

Inconsistencies is another constraint , a situation in which government policies as regards production, transportation and marketing of groundnut in Nigeria, which the government was actively involve before the disappearance of the groundnut pyramid of the North, has been identified as the major setback over the years for the crop which shows much prospect for development of the economy; as does in the past.

Storage

After cleaning and grading, the dried pod could be stored in bags and stacked up to 10 bags high in separated stacks to allow air circulation among them. The bags should be piled on wooden planks to avoid damage from dampness.

Economic potential

Nigeria is one of the countries of the world with a variety of oil seeds notably groundnut, oil palm, soybean and cotton seeds. Vegetable oils are used principally for food (mostly as shortening, margarines, and salad and cooking oils) and in the manufacture of soap and other products.

Groundnut is by far the most nutritive oil-seed used in West Africa. The kernels have an average fat and protein content of 75% and an energy value of 360 kcal/100g, compared to 60% and 430 kcal/100 g for soybeans.

In Nigeria, Groundnut provides high quality cooking oil and is an important source of protein for both human and animal diet and also provides much needed foreign exchange by exporting kernels and cake (Nautiyal, 1999)[8]. As population continues to grow the demand for edible oil in many developing countries such as Nigeria will also continue to grow. Groundnut will continue to be important in satisfying this growing demand because it is adaptable to a wide range of environments from sandy soils of the Sahel to favorable irrigated areas.

General information

Production       

Nigeria is the fourth largest producer in the world and the highest producer in Africa with 1.55 million metric tons.

Peanuts grow best in light, sandy loam soil. They require five months of warm weather, and an annual rainfall of 500 to 1,000 mm (20 to 39 in) or the equivalent in irrigation water.

The pods ripen 120 to 150 days after the seeds are planted. If the crop is harvested too early, the pods will be unripe. If they are harvested late, the pods will snap off at the stalk, and will remain in the soil.

They need an acidic soil to grow preferably with 5.9-7 PH.

In tropical Africa, average yield of groundnut range from 300-1000kg/ha; with god management practice and proper disease control yields up to 5tones/ha can be achieved.

Groundnut oil

Over half of the groundnut harvested worldwide is crushed for oil and a substantial quantity of groundnut produced in developing countries is traded in domestic markets. International trade of groundnuts is mainly in the form of in shell (pods), shelled (kernels) and meal (cake). A large trade of confectionery groundnut is also booming in the international market.

Groundnut oil has traditionally been a significant dietary component in several countries in Western Africa. In some countries like Nigeria, Gambia and Senegal, oil extraction has been important rural cottage industry for many years. Industrial processing of oil from groundnuts exists in many countries like, India, Sudan, Senegal, Nigeria and Gambia. Oil extraction at the village level is still quite common throughout the developing countries

 

References

 

Disclaimer

All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. agriculturenigeria.com makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, correntness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis.

 

 

Nigeria (NGA) Exports, Imports, and Trade Partners

Nigeria is the 49th largest export economy in the world and the 140th most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI). In 2015, Nigeria exported $47.8B and imported $39.5B, resulting in a positive trade balance of $8.26B. In 2015 the GDP of Nigeria was $481B and its GDP per capita was $6k.


The top exports  as reported  by  The National Bureau of Statistics  on foreign trade for Nigeria in a paper released 2015:

  • Petro.oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude ($2,121,410,080,892.00)
  • Natural gas, liquefied ($260,699,763,637.00)
  • Petroleum gases and other gaseous hydrocarbons, liquefied ($66,441,376,215.00)
  • Propane, liquefied ($43,879,454,959.10)
  • Sesame seeds  ($21,781,746,959.00)
  • Partially refined oil including crude oil having undergone primary refinement ($13,577,043,000.00)
  • Cashew nuts, in shell,fresh or dried ($8,759,822,113.00)
  • Butanes, liquefied ($6,149,397,796.00)
  • Leather further prepared after tanning or… of goats or kids ($4,929,737,824.00)
  • Cigarettes containing tobacco ($4,886,734,105.00)
  • Urea ($4,030,992,527.00)
  • Frozen shrimps and prawns ($3,474,216,454.00)
  • Aluminium alloys, unwrought ($2,982,760,465.00)
  • Cocoa paste, wholly or partly defatted ($2,967,008,529.00)
  • Broken cocoa beans ($2,844,108,503.00)

 

The top imports also referencing the same report as above are:

  • Motor Spirit Ordinary  ($140,521,551,306.00)
  • Spelt, common wheat and meslin ($42,489,526,639.00)
  • Machine-tools for working stone, ceramics, concrete, etc ($27,761,095,339.00)
  • Imported motorcycles and cycles,imported CKD by estab manuf >50cc<=250cc
    ($26,365,422,203.00)
  • Semi-milled or wholly milled rice >5kg or bulk (investors with rice milling capability) ($425,377,257,508.00)
  • Raw cane sugar, in solid form ($25,123,246,631.00)
  • Durum wheat ($19,336,983,814.00)
  • Herbicides, ant-sprouting products and plant- growth regulators ($17,016,192,296.00)
  • Unused postage, revenue or similar stamps of current or new issue in the country ($14,943,187,607.00)
  • Frozen cod (excl. livers and roes) ($13,134,452,981.00)
  • Mixtures of odoriferous substances Of a kind used in the food or drink industries ($13,080,112,460.00)
  • Other crude palm oil ($11,226,284,960.00)
  • Milk&cream in powder>1.5%fat not contain sweetening matter ($11,042,456,419.00)
  • Frozen mackerel 10,864,448,307.00
  • Reaction initiators, accelerators and catalytic preparations ($10,701,610,135.00)

The top Export destinations of Nigeria are:

  • India ($9.1B),
  • Spain ($4.63B),
  • South Africa ($4.58B),
  • Brazil ($4.14B) and the
  • Netherlands ($3.37B).

The top Import origins

Imports to Nigeria increased 49.5 percent year-on-year to NGN 758772.7 in December of 2016. Considering the fourth quarter of 2016, imports rose 46.4 percent to NGN 2307.6 billion.

Main import partners were

  • China (17.5 %)
  • Belgium (15.4 %)
  • Netherlands (10 %)
  • The United States of America (8.9 %)

Imports in Nigeria averaged 180079.15 NGN Millions from 1981 until 2016, reaching an all time high of 1554732.90 NGN Millions in March of 2011 and a record low of 167.88 NGN Millions in May of 1984.

 


Nigeria borders Benin, Cameroon, Niger and Chad by land and Ghana, Equatorial Guinea and Sao Tome and Principe by sea.

 

 

References

 

Disclaimer:

All data and information provided in this article is for informational purposes only. Altimfreeman Inv. makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, correctness, suitability, or validity of any information in this Site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis.

The Magic of Turmeric Root

Scientific Name: “Curcuma longa”

Common Names: Indian saffron, Jiang huang, Haridra

Where It Grows: This herb is native to India

Which Part Of The Plant Is Used: Root

 

Turmeric Benefits

Turmeric has been used in India for over 2500 years and is a major part of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. It was first used as a dye and then later for its medicinal properties.

A powerful antioxidant called curcumin is the active ingredient in this herb and is what gives it its ability to improve and maintain your health.

Turmeric is a great natural liver detoxifier. Studies conducted at The University of Maryland Medical Center suggest that it works as an antioxidant, protecting the liver against damage by free radicals and helps increase the production of bile by the gallbladder. It is often used in the treatment of gallstones and liver disorders by the systems of Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine.

Because of the huge amount of toxins we ingest daily from the food and water we consume and the air we breathe, keeping the liver detoxified is important to good health. The liver is a very important organ in the body and performs many critical functions. It metabolizes fats and carbohydrates, regulates blood levels as well as filters bacteria and toxins from the blood. Keeping the liver in good shape promotes a healthy immune system.

Turmeric is also very effective as a pain reliever and combats inflammation. Many people who have arthritis take this herb on a daily basis. Research suggests that the curcumin in turmeric acts as a natural nitric oxide scavenger and inhibits the production of COX-2, a substance in the body that causes inflammation. It works just as well as many prescription anti-inflammatory medicines, but without the negative side-effects.

This herb possesses antibiotic and antiseptic properties. It can be used for disinfecting cuts, scrapes and burns. It aids in fat metabolism and may be helpful for people trying to lose weight. The Chinese have long used turmeric as an effective treatment for depression.

Much research is being conducted right now into the possibility of this herb being used to prevent and treat different types of cancer.

Some research suggests that turmeric may be able to prevent or possibly slow down the growth rate of several types of tumors of the intestines, breast, esophagus, stomach, skin and mouth. In one study, turmeric was able to inhibit cancer-causing enzymes in mice.

Turmeric is also helpful in reducing bad cholesterol in the blood stream. Bad cholesterol is one of the primary causes of heart attacks and blocked arteries. it is also a powerful digestive aid which helps to release enzymes that process carbohydrates and fats. It is a useful remedy for people with upset stomachs.

Turmeric Uses:

·         Antioxidant

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Antibacterial

·         Pain reliever

·         Treat depression

·         Anti-cancer

·         Aides digestion

·         Prevent heart disease

·         Liver detoxification

·         Reduce skin pigmentation

·         Treat acne

·         Antiseptic

·         Cox-2 inhibitor

·         Treat rheumatoid arthritis

·         Protect cardiovascular system

·         Treat Alzheimer’s disease

·         Lower bad cholesterol

·         Reduce tumor formation

·         Regulate menstruation

·         Treat eczema

·         Wound healing

·         Treat heartburn

·         Treat stomach ulcers

·         Treat gallstones

How It’s Used

Curcuma_longa_roots.jpg

The root is dried and crushed into a fine powder. This can be used in food or taken in capsules.

Precautions and Side Effects:

Do NOT take Turmeric if pregnant or nursing. May possibly stimulate the uterus or promote a menstrual period. Should not be taken by people taking blood thinning medicine, as it can slow blood clotting. Could cause upset stomach, heartburn or nausea if taken in large amounts. Always talk to your doctor before taking any health supplement.

 

 

 

References:

 

Disclaimer:

All data and information provided in this article is for informational purposes only. Altimfreeman Inv. makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, correctness, suitability, or validity of any information in this Site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis.

Starting Cocoa Farming in Nigeria

Introduction of cocoa cultivation

Cocoa is also called ‘cacao’ (derives from the Spanish word Cacao) and this is mainly grown for its beans from which cocoa solids and cocoa butter are extracted.

Cocoa beans are mainly used in the production of chocolate, cocoa powder and cocoa butter, whereas cocoa butter is also used in the cosmetic industry. cocoa is an important commercial bean crop from the humid tropics. In Nigeria this crop can be grown as mixed crop in suitable regions. ivory coast is the top producer of cocoa beans in the world. Often times cocoa is grown as mixed crop in Areca nut, Coconut and Oil palm plantations.

The Cocoa plant is native to amazon basin and tropical regions of south America and Central America. commercial cultivation of Cocoa beans has always been a huge success due to its demand in the local and international markets. One can expect decent profits in the Cocoa bean farming with proper orchard management practices.he botanical name or scientific name of Cocoa is “Theobroma Cacao.L.”. Cocoa belongs to the genus of “Theobroma“. In Nigeria, Cocoa plantations are usually seen in the states  Cross-river State, Edo State, Ekiti State, Ogun State, Ondo State, Osun State and Oyo State.

The seeds are the main ingredient of chocolate, while the pulp is used in some countries to prepare a refreshing juice

Different products from cocoa

The husks of cocoa pods and the pulp, or sweatings, surrounding the beans and the cocoa bean shells can be used. Some examples of these uses are:

  • Animal feed from cocoa husk,
  • Production of soft drinks and alcohol.

Potash from cocoa pod husk – Cocoa pod husk ash is used mainly for soft soap manufacture. It may also be used as fertilizer for Cocoa, vegetables, and food crops.

Jam and marmalade – Pectin for jam and marmalade is extracted from the sweatings

Once the beans have been fermented and dried, they can be processed to produce a variety of products. These products include:

  1. Cocoa butter– Cocoa butter is used in the manufacture of chocolate. It is also widely used in cosmetic products such as moisturizing creams and soaps.
  2. Cocoa powder– Cocoa powder can be used as an ingredient in almost any foodstuff. For example, it is used in chocolate flavored drinks, chocolate flavored desserts such as ice cream and mousse, chocolate spreads and sauces, and cakes and biscuits.
  3. Cocoa liquor– Cocoa liquor is used, with other ingredients, to produce chocolate. Chocolate is used as a product on its own or combined with other ingredients to form confectionery products.

Species of cocoa

There are three distinct groups within the species Theobroma cacao that are cultivated for international market. These are the Criollo, Forastero Amazonian and Trinitario.

3733588_orig

 

Climate Requirement For Cocoa

Cocoa can be grown within a wide range of rainfall from 1000-3000 mm or more per annum. When irrigation is available and the occurrence of dry winds is limited, the crop can be grown completely without rain. Cocoa plants respond well to a relatively high temperature with a maximum annual average of 30-32oC and a minimum average of 18 -21oC.

Soil requirement for Cocoa cultivation

Cocoa trees can be grown on a wide range of soils. Cocoa trees are predominanatly cultivated in red laterite soils. However, these trees prefer well-drained sandy loam soil with pH range of 6.5-7.0- Water retaining soils are best for its optimum growth and yield.

Routine maintenance such as weeding, mulching, pruning, replacement of dead seedlings and regeneration of old cocoa plant are some of the production practices it requires for maximum productivity.

Land Preparation for cultivation

land should be prepared by giving 3 to 4 ploughing until the soil attains fine tilth stage. if the crop is grown on a large scale (commmercially), it is advised to do a soil test. Based on test results, soil should be supplemented with required nutrients. As crop requires well-drainaged soil, the land should be prepared in such a way that the water should be drained quickly.

Propagation methods in cocoa cultivation:

propagation of cocoa is done through Seeds and Vegetative Cuttings.

Seed Propagation

cocoa-seeds (1)

In seed propagation of cocoa, seeds should be treated with ash or lime. cocoa seeds should be sown in polythene bags. these seeds can be raised in nursery beds with required shade. seeds sown soon after extraction. seedlings of 60cm height should be ready for transportation in main fields. for better germination, make sure ti sow the seeds whose pod husk thickness is less than one centimeter and bean (dry) weight is moe than one gram

 

Vegetative propagation

CocoaSeedling in nursery

Cocoa trees may be propagated by vegetative cutting, budding, grafting. In vegetative propagation; to achieve 90% of rooting, the farmer should use cuttings  3-4 cm long, with leaves 1 or 2 leaves on it treated with IBA and planted in medium or rotten palm fiber and sand in equal part. Generally tree cuttings of 15cm length bearing four terminal leaves should be treated with NNA + IBA dip and planted in polybags, this will result in rooting of 65 to 75% after one month.

Cocoa is a shade loving plant and natural or artificial shade should be created during its seedling period and growing period. Cocoa requires more shade in the initial stages than later stages of growth.

  • In the case where the main crop is coconut and inter-crop is Cocoa: it requires 7.5 meters by 7.5 meters which accommodates 500 cocoa plants per hectare land.
  • In a case where main crop is Arecanut and inter-crop is Cocoa: it requires 2.7 meters by 2.7  meters which accommodates 686 cocoa plants per hectare land.
  • In the case where the main crop is Oil Palm and the inter-crop is Cocoa: it requires 4.5 meters by 4.5 meters which accommodates 400 cocoa plants per hectare land.

 

Planting material in Cocoa cultivation

Selection of good and healthy planting material is very important in any commercial crop farming. if you are planning to use seedlings, select vigorous and healthy seedlings from genuine/reputed certifies nurseries.

Make sure to select the seedling or budded or grafted plant which is at least 4 to 5 months old. the cocoa seedling or grafted plant or budded plant should be placed at the centre of the pot.

Irrigation in Cocoa cultivation

proper irrigation of cocoa plants ensures health growth and yield. constant moisture should be maintained as cocoa plants are sensitive to drought. Young cocoa plants should be irrigated frequently at an interval of 3 days during hot/dry climatic conditions. it does not require any watering in rainy season. in case of floods and over rains make sure to drain out the water effectively even applying fertilizers through drip is possible for better utilization of fertilizers and controlling weed growth.

Manures and Fertilizers in Cocoa cultivation

Cocoa plants respond well to organic manures and fertilizers. any nutrient/micro-nutrient gaps should be filled during soil/land preparation. On the average, each cocoa plant requires 8-10 kg of well rotten farm yard manure (FYM) along with 100 grams of “N”, 40 grams of “P205” and 140 grams of K20 per year.

these fertilizers should be applied in 2 equal split doses one in Apr-May other in Aug-Sep. Organic Manure should be applied in first year itself. 1/3rd of fertilizers in the first year, 2/3rd in the second year and full doses should be applied from third year.

 

Pruning in Cocoa Cultivation

Pruning is the process of thinning of branches and removing old or dead stems/branches. this is mandatory in most of the farm management to allow the crop to grow well by allowing direct sunlight. pruning is done to encourage a tree structure or control the height that allows sunlight. Carry out the first pruning after main harvest just before the monsoon. Second pruning should be done 6 months after the first one. Any lower branches and dead branches should be removed. limit the branches 4 to 5 for better sunlight. burn any disease branches after they are removed.

 

Pest and diseases in cocoa cultivation

in any crop, pest and disease control play a major role for getting quality produce and higher yeilds. the following are the main pests and diseases found in cocoa cultivation.

  • Pests

The following are common pests found in cocoa cultivation:

Mealy bugs, Aphids, Plant hoppers, Caterpillars, Mosquitoes, Cocoa pod borer and stem Girdlers

 

55.1.1

Cocoa Pod Borer

 

Pest Control Measures

Sucking insects

Sahlbergella_3rd

Sahlbergella singularis

Helopeltis_antonii_s

H. antonii (Java)

 

 

Distantiella_side

Distantiella theobroma

 

  • The insect pestsMaintain a complete canopy: in young plantings, temporary shading is needed, e.g. with bananas and plantains.
  • Remove chupons regularly: mirids are attracted to the young and soft shoots that cocoa trees grow throughout the season. Chupons that emerge at the base of trees should be removed regularly, not just during the peak mirid season. Do not prune too heavily as this will stress the trees and cause the growth of new chupons, which increase mirid feeding.
  • All cocoa varieties are affected by mirids, but modern ones less so than Amelonado (possibly tolerance to infections of Calonectria rigidiuscula and other mirid transmitted fungi that may cause cocoa dieback). Improved varieties have been offset by changes to the agricultural environment: a trend towards reduced shade encourages mirids.
  • Insecticides are widely used and effective: especially when timed correctly (often early in the season). If possible, only spray those areas in the farm that are attacked by mirids (spot application). Careful and well-timed application can help farmers to save money by using less insecticide, and decrease impact on natural enemies of this pest.
  • In the past, organochlorine insecticides (e.g. lindane, endosulfan) and carbamates(propoxur and promecarb) have been chosen with vapour action and persistence to counteract poor application. Many of these have been, or are in the process of being, withdrawn.
  • Modern, less toxic insecticides, such as neonicatinoids, are now available, but these are expensive and not always available. Pyrethroids can be effective, but they may kill beneficial insects such as pollinators, so these must only be used as little as possible and only where mirids actually occur.

Cocoa pod borer (CPB)
Conopomorpha crammerella

  • Cocoa husks temporarily covered with plastic sheet to prevent CPB hatching (PRIMA, Sulawesi)
    The insect pestRegular complete harvesting of pods is almost certainly the most effective cultural technique.
  • Other cultural techniques include: rampassan (enforcing a break in pod production) and removal/burying/enclosing husks.
  • Historically, chemical control has been most effective with broad spectrum insecticides. These originally included organochlorines (e.g. gamma-HCH or endosulfan) that have now been – or are in the process of being – withdrawn for safety and environmental reasons. Farmers in Sulawesi are left with a choice between oganophosphates (e.g. chlorpyrifos) and pyrethroids (e.g. cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin) and fipronil (similar mode of action to organochlorines).

Stemborers

  • Maintain a healthy and balanced ecosystem to preserve natural enemies that kill lepidopteran stem borer caterpillars. Use pesticides rationally to keep insect pests in check and to preserve natural enemies of stem borer.
  • Plant a barrier crop that is not attractive to stem borers, such as: Leucaena glauca, cocoyam, sweet potato or Pueraria species. The barrier must be at least 15 m wide and established early for new plantings.
  • It has been suggested that attacks have been caused by heavy pesticide use on trees, which kills off the natural enemies (insecticide resurgence). However, from the 1990s onwards, stem borer has become more noticeable, even on farms where no pesticides are used.

Rodents and other vertebrate pests

  • The vermin Rat traps and nooses are popular, but of little value for lowering populations: a combination of good practices is most likely to be successful. These must be implemented over large areas as rodents reproduce and spread quickly. Whole communities should work together, if possible.
  • Good farm management (weeding, light shade management, timely pruning, etc.) is important.
  • Barn owls are probably the most proven biological controls for rodents. When barn owl nest boxes were established in cocoa plantations in Malaysia, rat damage was significantly reduced. Recently a control product has been brought out based on the pathogen Sarcocystis singaporensis
  • When rodents attack more than 4 out of 100 cocoa pods, farmers may want to think about chemical control. Rodents can be baited and killed with poisoned wax blocks (containing the anti-coagulants: brodifacoum, bromadiolone or warfarin), tied high up on trees to help avoid poisoning of children and farm animals. Baiting with anti-coagulant rodenticides is most likely to work when farmers co-operate and treat as large an area as possible at the same time – best in the low season when rodents are most hungry. Another problem is that rats adapt and learn quickly not to eat the poison (bait shyness).

Mistletoes

Native-mistletoe-at-Edeowie-Station-by-Michelle-Bartsch-CC

At least 6 different species of Mistletoe have been found on West African cocoa. One species Tapinanthus bangwensis accounts for about 70% of infestations in Ghana and is recognised by its red flowers and berries: it flowers twice a year and can live for up to 18 years.  Regular removal of mistletoe is essential for good crop management and in healthy cocoa crops, misletoes are not able to become established; large populations can be considered a sign of farm neglect.  Mistletoe may also provide a suitable habitat for ants (Crematogaster sp.) which cultivate the mealybugs vectors of CSSVD.

 

  • Diseases

The following are the common diseases found in cocoa cultivation:

The black pod disease:

Black-Pod

It’s the most serious disease of cocoa in West Africa, especially in Nigeria. It is caused by a fungus Phytophthora megakarya.

Other diseases are Cocoa Swllen Shoot, Seedling Blight, Witches broom, Black Pod, Frosty Pod, Stem Canker and wilt.

Disease control measures

Insect-borne viruses:

Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease (CSSVD)

CSSVD1s

  • The diseases and vectorsRemove diseased trees as well as their neighbouring cocoa trees (that might look healthy, but are expected to be infected with the virus). This works for small outbreaks. When more than 100 trees in any one area are diseased, adjacent cocoa trees up to 15 m away with disease symptoms should be removed.
  • Alternative methods include using resistant cocoa trees when replanting cocoa. Check with your local cocoa research institute and find out about resistant varieties.
  • When establishing new cocoa farms, where possible, plant trees away from known CSSV areas. Use natural barriers, such as are oil palm, coffee and citrus to prevent or slow-down the spread of the mealy bugs within cocoa farms.
  • Use of systemic organophosphate insecticides was tested to control mealy bugs was hazardous and had little effect; insecticides are not currently recommended.
    To top

 

Vascular streak die-back (VSD):
Oncobasidium theobromae

VSD2_s

  • The diseaseThere is some scope for host plant resistance – refer to your local breeding programme.
  • Protection of seedlings is especially crucial.
    When symptoms are found at an early stage in more mature trees, hard pruning well beyond the infected parts of a branch and destruction (preferably burning) of removed plant material may be effective.
  • Fungicides are probably not cost effective for wide-scale spraying of mature trees, and are used mostly for protecting seedlings, using triazole compounds such as tebuconazole, triadimefon and triadimenol.

Root diseases (causing tree death)

Xyleborus_from_Ceratocystis_s

  • The diseasesWhen trees become infected with diseases such as Ceratocystis, and especially when Xyleborusbeetle holes (indicated by arrow: note frass below) are found, the most effective course of action is to uproot trees and burn infected plant material. No cocoa varieties have yet been found that are tolerant to Roslinia spp.
  • Short of this, dispose of infected branches before beetles appear and before the fungus has a chance to sporulate on the cut ends of branches and stumps. Wound treatments with tree paints or protectant fungicide pastes on uninfected trees may also help control the disease.

Harvest and Thrashing in Cocoa Cultivation

Cocoa trees start flowering from third year of sowing/planting. Actual economic yeild starts from the fifth year. It takes cocoa pods from 150 – 180 days, depending on variety, from pollination to pod ripening.   Usually cocoa produces two main crops in a year. Usually one can judge the maturity of pods by colour change. Generally green pods turn to yellow when mature. make sure to harvest at regular intervals of 10-12 days.

Harvesting for harvesting the pod include:

  1.       Sharp cutlass for plucking pods within reach
  2.       Harvesting knife with short handle for harvesting pods well above the ground.
  3.       Harvesting knife attached to a long pole for harvesting pods from topmost part of cocoa.

Do not allow pods to be over ripened. the pods are opened hitting on a hard surface or using a mallet.

cocoa-production

 

 

Post-Harvest in Cocoa Cultivation

Once harvesting is done, pod fermentation should be carried out. Afterwards pod breaking should take place; in this you may get 30 to 35 wet cocoa beans per pod. these beans should go through fermentation and drying. dried cocoa beans should be graded, packed and stored.

 

Cocoa-production-requires-no-drilling-refinery-and-no-subsidy.

Cocoa Seed drying and picking

 

Yield in Cocoa Cultivation

Yield of Cocoa crop depends on many factors like variety/cultivar, soil type, plant age, and other farm management practices. On an average  50 to 60 pods/tree/year can be expected. the yield would be in vegetative propagation when compared to seed propagation method. In seed propagation crop, 200 kg/ha dried bran and in vegetative crop, 500 to 800 kg/ha dried bean can be obtained

 

Constraints in Cocoa Cultivation

The production increase relied for a long time on an expansion of the planted areas. Limited forest availability imposes to promote intensified cocoa cultivation whilst maintaining the current areas. Thus, the competitiveness of cocoa cultivation becomes a decisive factor to stabilize the areas planted when cocoa is in competition with other crops. Villalobos (1989) also identified some of these factors as: low yield, inconsistent production pattern, disease incidence, pest attack and use of simple farm tools.

The main challenges faced by the cocoa sector are the following:

  • Improving production sustainability through adapted varieties and cost-effective crop management, including replanting;
  • Limiting parasite pressure, a main limiting factor for cocoa production;
  • Structuring the commodity chain, from a socio-economic point of view, especially in a context of liberalization which leads to State withdrawal and greater involvement of private companies, and
  • Controlling quality to meet more diversified customer requirements

In addition, Oduwole (2004) in his study identified aging cocoa farms as one of the factors responsible for the decline in cocoa production in south western Nigeria. Many farms were over 40 years old and such farms constitute as much as 60% of the cocoa farms in Nigeria.

 

Economic importance

At present, the production capacity of cocoa in Nigeria has reached about 385, 000 metric tons per annum, an increase of 215, 000 metric tons from year 2000 production level. This disposition places Nigeria as the fourth highest cocoa producing nation in the world after Ivory Coast, Indonesia and Ghana (Erelu, 2008). By implication, Nigeria competes favorably with other frontline producing nations in supplying the world market.

The demand for cocoa can only be sustained with a proportionate increase in the establishment of more plantations to increase productions to match the demand for this commodity worldwide.

Important General information

Production

Cocoa was the most important agricultural export crop in Nigeria during the 1950s and 1960s. The period was described as decades of glory for cocoa as it was the most important foreign exchange earner for Nigeria. Production peaked at 400,000 metric tons in 1970. However, the oil boom of the 1970s resulted in the ‘dutch disease’ expressed in the neglect of the agricultural economy while focusing on oil which became almost the sole foreign exchange earner.

Currently, land area under Cocoa cultivation in Nigerian is estimated at 650,000 ha; with production of 250,000 metric tonnes per annum. Ondo state, is the biggest producer, with 77,000 tons per annum.

Cocoa is widely cultivated in the southern belt of Nigeria owing to the soil and climatic condition prevailing in the area. This include: Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Ekiti, Kogi, Kwara, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo and Taraba. In terms of capacity, Ondo State is rated as the largest cocoa producing state in Nigeria (Oluyole, 2005).

Because of its importance, the recent Federal Government’s concern of diversifying the export base of the nation has placed cocoa in the Centre-stage as the most important export tree crop. Evidence has however shown that the growth rate of cocoa production has been declining, which has given rise to a fall in the fortunes of the subsector among other reasons. Folayan, et.al (2006), note that cocoa production in Nigeria witnessed a downward trend after 1971 season, when its export declined to 216,000 metric tons in 1976, and 150,000 metric tons in 1986.

Nigeria is ranked fourth highest cocoa producing nation in the world after Ivory Coast, Indonesia and Ghana (Erelu, 2008).

Processing

This depends on the use to which it is meant for. However in West Africa, the cocoa beans are marketed dry. After harvesting, the pods are opened by knocking against blunt object to avoid damage to the beans. These are set out for fermentation and drying.

The beans are fermented and the water content reduced from approximately 60% to 6 – 7%, in order to block the enzymatic reactions and to enable the product to be stored safely, free from pest and diseases.

Nigeria is not yet maximizing its income from cocoa production, as most of the beans are sold unprocessed. According to Salami (2000), there have been a total of seventeen cocoa processing companies in some parts of the cocoa producing states of Nigeria between 1964 and 2006; however, only seven of them were functional. “The rest have either not been completed, closed down or did not come on board at all. The processing companies have many problems such as inadequate working capital, irregular power supply, high cost of cocoa beans, inefficient and sometimes obstructive government policies.”

Cocoa Processors Association of Nigeria (CPAN) has been clamoring for the ban on exportation of unprocessed Cocoa bean to encourage the processing locally. There was an attempt by the Nigerian government to ban export of cocoa beans in 1990 to promote local industrialization, increase foreign exchange earnings, and facilitate technology transfer. However, the ban was short-lived because of policy failure and pressure from stakeholders, especially Cocoa Association of Nigeria (CAN), which stressed that local industrial processing capacity was inadequate for handling the national cocoa beans output (Olomola et al, 1993; Ojo, 2005).

Improved varieties

The Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) has intensified efforts at increasing cocoa production in the country with the introduction of eight new varieties of cocoa to Nigerian farmers. These varieties had the capacity to transform the cocoa industry in the sense that currently, the yield in the Nigerian farms is 450 kg per hectare but this new hybrid varieties has potential of one to two tonnes per hectare.

The Federal government in line with the transformation agenda to maximize the Cocoa industry by doubling the production figure to 500,000MT by 2015; distributed improved varieties to farmers to replace aging and enhance establishment of new ones. The yield from this hybrid when fully adopted will increase farm yield and increase revenue for the individual and the country.

 

References

  • http://www.agriculturenigeria.com
  • http://www.agrifarming.in
  • Culled from: Wikipedia
  • Culled from: International cocoa organisation
  • Villalobos, V.M. (1989) Advances in Tissue Culture Methods Applied to Coffee and Cocoa Plant Biotechnology for Developing Countries. United Kingdom. CTA/FAO, Chayce Publication Services.
  • Curtsey: Hubert OMONT – IPGRI – Commodity Chains
  • Oduwole, O.O. (2004) Adoption of Improved Agronomic Practices by Cocoa Farmers in Nigeria: A Multivariate Tobit Analysis. Thesis (Unpublished). Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
  • Erelu, O.O. (2008) Cocoa for Health and Wealth. A Paper presented in a Fourth Cocoa Day
  • Celebration in Osun State between 22nd – 24th April.
  • Curtsey: http://compassnewspaper.org
  • Curtsey: http://pointblanknews.com
  • Curtsey: http://businessnews.com.ng
  • Oluyole, K.A. (2005).Evaluation of the Economics of Post Harvest Processing of Cocoa in Cross River State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences. 3 (2): 58-64.
  • Nkang NM, Abang SO, Akpan OE and KJ Offem Cointegration and Error Correction Modelling of Agricultural Export Trade in Nigeria: The case of Cocoa. Journal of Agriculture and Social Sciences; 2006; 2(4): 249-255.
  • Folayan JA, Daramola GA and AE Oguntade Structure and Performance Evaluation of Cocoa Marketing Institutions in South-Western Nigeria: An Economic Analysis. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 2006; 4(2): 123-128.
  • Erelu, O.O. (2008) Cocoa for Health and Wealth. A Paper presented in a Fourth Cocoa Day
  • Celebration in Osun State between 22nd – 24th April.
  • Olomola, Ade, A.C. Nwosu, B.A. Oni, S.O. Akande and B.O. Akanji (1993). Prospects
  • for Increased Value-added in Nigeria Cocoa Exports, NISER Monograph Series No.3,1993.
  • Culled from  Nigerian Tribune
  • ICCO, Quarterly Bulletin of Cocoa Statistics
  • cdn.dailytimesnigeria.ng
  • http://www.wealthresult.com
  • http://www.businessdayonline.com
  • http://www.scienceline.com
  • http://www.chocolatmadagascar.com
  • http://www.dropdata.org
  • thevelvetrocket.files.wordpress.com

 

Disclaimer:

All data and information provided in this article is for informational purposes only. Altimfreeman Inv. makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, correctness, suitability, or validity of any information in this Site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXPORT PROHIBITION LIST ACCORDING TO THE NIGERIAN CUSTOMS SERVICE

We are all tired of trying to go into our export business but we have no idea where to start or what is and what is not allowed, this list has been put together by the diligent Nigerian Customs Service for the purpose of those trying to engage in business that involves sellin g information, goods and services with clients overseas.

They are:

  1. Maize
  1. Timber (rough or sawn)
  2. Raw hides and skin (including Wet Blue and all unfinished leather) H.S. Codes 4101.2000.00 – 4108.9200.00
  3. Scrap Metals
  4. Unprocessed rubber latex and rubber lumps
  5. Artifacts and Antiquities
  6. Wildlife animalsclassified as endangered species and their products
    g. Crocodile; Elephant, Lizard, Eagle, Monkey, Zebra, Lion etc.
  1. All goods imported

 

Source:  The Nigerian Customs Service

Disclaimer:

All data and information provided in this article is for informational purposes only. Altimfreeman Inv. Makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, correctness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis.